According to the National Academy of Neuropsychology (NAN, 2001): "A clinical neuropsychologist is a professional within the field of psychology with special expertise in the applied science of brain-behavior relationships. Clinical neuropsychologists use this knowledge in the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and/or rehabilitation of patients across the lifespan with neurological, medical, neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, as well as other cognitive and learning disorders. The clinical neuropsychologist uses psychological, neurological, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological principles, techniques and tests to evaluate patients’ neurocognitive, behavioral, and emotional strengths and weaknesses and their relationship to normal and abnormal central nervous system functioning. The clinical neuropsychologist uses this information and information provided by other medical/healthcare providers to identify and diagnose neurobehavioral disorders, and plan and implement intervention strategies. The specialty of clinical neuropsychology is recognized by the American Psychological Association and the Canadian Psychological Association. Clinical neuropsychologists are independent practitioners (healthcare providers) of clinical neuropsychology and psychology."
A neuropsychological evaluation is a comprehensive evaluation of cognitive abilities and factors that may impact them. The evaluation entails three main components: (1) medical record review, (2) interview regarding personal and medical history, and (3) test administration. Tests are noninvasive, pencil-and-paper or computerized in administration, and assess a broad range of cognitive abilities including memory, attention, language, visuospatial, and executive functioning skills. The time of evaluation can take between 2-6 hours depending on the reason for referral and other factors. A report of the findings will be prepared usually within two weeks of the evaluation.
Clinical neuropsychological evaluations are described here.
Forensic or privately paid neuropsychological evaluations are described here.